Cargo Guide

Welcome to the Cargo guide. This guide will give you all that you need to know about how to use Cargo to develop Rust projects.

Why Cargo exists

Cargo is a tool that allows Rust projects to declare their various dependencies and ensure that you’ll always get a repeatable build.

To accomplish this goal, Cargo does four things:

Creating a new project

To start a new project with Cargo, use cargo new:

$ cargo new hello_world --bin

We’re passing --bin because we’re making a binary program: if we were making a library, we’d leave it off. This also initializes a new git repository by default. If you don't want it to do that, pass --vcs none.

Let’s check out what Cargo has generated for us:

$ cd hello_world
$ tree .
.
├── Cargo.toml
└── src
    └── main.rs

1 directory, 2 files

If we had just used cargo new hello_world without the --bin flag, then we would have a lib.rs instead of a main.rs. For now, however, this is all we need to get started. First, let’s check out Cargo.toml:

[package]
name = "hello_world"
version = "0.1.0"
authors = ["Your Name <you@example.com>"]

This is called a manifest, and it contains all of the metadata that Cargo needs to compile your project.

Here’s what’s in src/main.rs:

fn main() {
    println!("Hello, world!");
}

Cargo generated a “hello world” for us. Let’s compile it:

$ cargo build
   Compiling hello_world v0.1.0 (file:///path/to/project/hello_world)

And then run it:

$ ./target/debug/hello_world
Hello, world!

We can also use cargo run to compile and then run it, all in one step (You won't see the Compiling line if you have not made any changes since you last compiled):

$ cargo run
   Compiling hello_world v0.1.0 (file:///path/to/project/hello_world)
   Running `target/debug/hello_world`
Hello, world!

You’ll now notice a new file, Cargo.lock. It contains information about our dependencies. Since we don’t have any yet, it’s not very interesting.

Once you’re ready for release, you can use cargo build --release to compile your files with optimizations turned on:

$ cargo build --release
   Compiling hello_world v0.1.0 (file:///path/to/project/hello_world)

cargo build --release puts the resulting binary in target/release instead of target/debug.

Compiling in debug mode is the default for development-- compilation time is shorter since the compiler doesn't do optimizations, but the code will run slower. Release mode takes longer to compile, but the code will run faster.

Working on an existing Cargo project

If you download an existing project that uses Cargo, it’s really easy to get going.

First, get the project from somewhere. In this example, we’ll use rand cloned from its repository on GitHub:

$ git clone https://github.com/rust-lang-nursery/rand.git
$ cd rand

To build, use cargo build:

$ cargo build
   Compiling rand v0.1.0 (file:///path/to/project/rand)

This will fetch all of the dependencies and then build them, along with the project.

Adding dependencies from crates.io

crates.io is the Rust community's central repository that serves as a location to discover and download packages. cargo is configured to use it by default to find requested packages.

To depend on a library hosted on crates.io, add it to your Cargo.toml.

Adding a dependency

If your Cargo.toml doesn't already have a [dependencies] section, add that, then list the crate name and version that you would like to use. This example adds a dependency of the time crate:

[dependencies]
time = "0.1.12"

The version string is a semver version requirement. The specifying dependencies docs have more information about the options you have here.

If we also wanted to add a dependency on the regex crate, we would not need to add [dependencies] for each crate listed. Here's what your whole Cargo.toml file would look like with dependencies on the time and regex crates:

[package]
name = "hello_world"
version = "0.1.0"
authors = ["Your Name <you@example.com>"]

[dependencies]
time = "0.1.12"
regex = "0.1.41"

Re-run cargo build, and Cargo will fetch the new dependencies and all of their dependencies, compile them all, and update the Cargo.lock:

$ cargo build
    Updating registry `https://github.com/rust-lang/crates.io-index`
 Downloading memchr v0.1.5
 Downloading libc v0.1.10
 Downloading regex-syntax v0.2.1
 Downloading memchr v0.1.5
 Downloading aho-corasick v0.3.0
 Downloading regex v0.1.41
   Compiling memchr v0.1.5
   Compiling libc v0.1.10
   Compiling regex-syntax v0.2.1
   Compiling memchr v0.1.5
   Compiling aho-corasick v0.3.0
   Compiling regex v0.1.41
   Compiling hello_world v0.1.0 (file:///path/to/project/hello_world)

Our Cargo.lock contains the exact information about which revision of all of these dependencies we used.

Now, if regex gets updated, we will still build with the same revision until we choose to cargo update.

You can now use the regex library using extern crate in main.rs.

extern crate regex;

use regex::Regex;

fn main() {
    let re = Regex::new(r"^\d{4}-\d{2}-\d{2}$").unwrap();
    println!("Did our date match? {}", re.is_match("2014-01-01"));
}

Running it will show:

$ cargo run
     Running `target/hello_world`
Did our date match? true

Project layout

Cargo uses conventions for file placement to make it easy to dive into a new Cargo project:

.
├── Cargo.lock
├── Cargo.toml
├── benches
│   └── large-input.rs
├── examples
│   └── simple.rs
├── src
│   ├── bin
│   │   └── another_executable.rs
│   ├── lib.rs
│   └── main.rs
└── tests
    └── some-integration-tests.rs

These are explained in more detail in the manifest description.

Cargo.toml vs Cargo.lock

Cargo.toml and Cargo.lock serve two different purposes. Before we talk about them, here’s a summary:

If you’re building a library that other projects will depend on, put Cargo.lock in your .gitignore. If you’re building an executable like a command-line tool or an application, check Cargo.lock into git. If you're curious about why that is, see "Why do binaries have Cargo.lock in version control, but not libraries?" in the FAQ.

Let’s dig in a little bit more.

Cargo.toml is a manifest file in which we can specify a bunch of different metadata about our project. For example, we can say that we depend on another project:

[package]
name = "hello_world"
version = "0.1.0"
authors = ["Your Name <you@example.com>"]

[dependencies]
rand = { git = "https://github.com/rust-lang-nursery/rand.git" }

This project has a single dependency, on the rand library. We’ve stated in this case that we’re relying on a particular Git repository that lives on GitHub. Since we haven’t specified any other information, Cargo assumes that we intend to use the latest commit on the master branch to build our project.

Sound good? Well, there’s one problem: If you build this project today, and then you send a copy to me, and I build this project tomorrow, something bad could happen. There could be more commits to rand in the meantime, and my build would include new commits while yours would not. Therefore, we would get different builds. This would be bad because we want reproducible builds.

We could fix this problem by putting a rev line in our Cargo.toml:

[dependencies]
rand = { git = "https://github.com/rust-lang-nursery/rand.git", rev = "9f35b8e" }

Now our builds will be the same. But there’s a big drawback: now we have to manually think about SHA-1s every time we want to update our library. This is both tedious and error prone.

Enter the Cargo.lock. Because of its existence, we don’t need to manually keep track of the exact revisions: Cargo will do it for us. When we have a manifest like this:

[package]
name = "hello_world"
version = "0.1.0"
authors = ["Your Name <you@example.com>"]

[dependencies]
rand = { git = "https://github.com/rust-lang-nursery/rand.git" }

Cargo will take the latest commit and write that information out into our Cargo.lock when we build for the first time. That file will look like this:

[root]
name = "hello_world"
version = "0.1.0"
dependencies = [
 "rand 0.1.0 (git+https://github.com/rust-lang-nursery/rand.git#9f35b8e439eeedd60b9414c58f389bdc6a3284f9)",
]

[[package]]
name = "rand"
version = "0.1.0"
source = "git+https://github.com/rust-lang-nursery/rand.git#9f35b8e439eeedd60b9414c58f389bdc6a3284f9"

You can see that there’s a lot more information here, including the exact revision we used to build. Now when you give your project to someone else, they’ll use the exact same SHA, even though we didn’t specify it in our Cargo.toml.

When we’re ready to opt in to a new version of the library, Cargo can re-calculate the dependencies and update things for us:

$ cargo update           # updates all dependencies
$ cargo update -p rand  # updates just “rand”

This will write out a new Cargo.lock with the new version information. Note that the argument to cargo update is actually a Package ID Specification and rand is just a short specification.

Tests

Cargo can run your tests with the cargo test command. Cargo looks for tests to run in two places: in each of your src files and any tests in tests/. Tests in your src files should be unit tests, and tests in tests/ should be integration-style tests. As such, you’ll need to import your crates into the files in tests.

Here's an example of running cargo test in our project, which currently has no tests:

$ cargo test
   Compiling rand v0.1.0 (https://github.com/rust-lang-nursery/rand.git#9f35b8e)
   Compiling hello_world v0.1.0 (file:///path/to/project/hello_world)
     Running target/test/hello_world-9c2b65bbb79eabce

running 0 tests

test result: ok. 0 passed; 0 failed; 0 ignored; 0 measured

If our project had tests, we would see more output with the correct number of tests.

You can also run a specific test by passing a filter:

$ cargo test foo

This will run any test with foo in its name.

cargo test runs additional checks as well. For example, it will compile any examples you’ve included and will also test the examples in your documentation. Please see the testing guide in the Rust documentation for more details.

Travis CI

To test your project on Travis CI, here is a sample .travis.yml file:

language: rust
rust:
  - stable
  - beta
  - nightly
matrix:
  allow_failures:
    - rust: nightly

This will test all three release channels, but any breakage in nightly will not fail your overall build. Please see the Travis CI Rust documentation for more information.

Further reading

Now that you have an overview of how to use cargo and have created your first crate, you may be interested in:

Even more topics are available in the Docs menu at the top!